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freshwater fish with long dorsal fin

Erythrocytes lacking in most or all species and is thought to be probably compensated for by the cold, well-oxygenated habitat, a large volume of blood circulation and skin respiration. Fixed conical teeth on jaws, prevomer, and parasphenoid. The unpaired lower pharyngeal toothplate and the opposed upper pharyngeal tooth plates are contained in a muscular sling characterizing labroid fishes. Pelvic fins absent, pelvic girdle present. Scales ctenoid or cycloid. Preopercle and infraorbitals with smooth margins. Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. Live specimens with exceedingly beautiful colors. Distribution: tropical western and eastern Atlantic, Indian and Pacific (mainly Indo-Pacific). No cirri on nape, may be present elsewhere on head. Scaleless body (lateral line scales modified in few species). Usually with fringes on lips. Eggs are demersal and adhesive (Ref. Numerous problems of species discrimination remain. Practically all genera and more than half of the species have been kept in aquaria at some time. Pelvic fin jugular, with 1 spine and 3 soft rays. Cheimarrichthyidae - (Torrentfish) The species may reach an elevation of 700 meters and penetrate 300 kilometers inland from the coast. Branchiostegal rays 5-7. All have been assigned to Datnioides, now the genus type for the family. Pale brown above and cream-colored below, with or without spots; or uniformly pink or red. The stomach has a left hand exit to the anterior intestine and the first intestinal loop is on the left side (Zihler, 1982) Owstoniines are less elongate, only 27-33 vertebrae and 19-26 dorsal-fin soft rays, with dorsal and anal fins not membraneously attached to the caudal fin (Ref. Dorsal fin long, continuous or divided; 7-23 spines, 12-36 soft rays. Gonochorism. Olfactory senses in this family are heightened for various reasons. A few Neotropical cichlids are recorded from brackish water conditions. Therefore, Coius has been put in synonymy with Anabas and genus and species included in Anabantidae (Kottelat, 2000; CAS_Ref_No 25865). Body elongate. Bathyclupeidae - (Deep-sea scalyfins) 58418. Distribution: Indian, Atlantic and Pacific. Body elongate, rounded anteriorly and compressed posteriorly; head broad, depressed, with eyes set high. Maximum length about 15 cm. Distribution: tropical Africa (three species) and southern Asia. Worldwide. Most species occur as heterosexual pairs. Continuous dorsal fin with 12-43 unbranched soft rays. 7463). Eastern Atlantic (including the Mediterranean), Indian and Pacific Oceans. Dorsal and anal fin bases long. Scientific general reviews of the family are provided by Keenleyside (1991) and Barlow (2000). 7463. Smaller species, particularly in the genus Apistogramma, may be strongly sexually dimorphic. Dorsal fins far apart. There is considerable variation in the shape and of the toothplates and associated dentition, reflecting diet specializations. The check-list herein recognizes 403 valid Neotropical cichlid species out of XXX nominal taxa. Branchiostegal rays 6. Mouth protrusible. Long anal fin, with one spine and 17-20 soft rays. Distribution: All tropical and temperate seas, except of mid-Indian and mid-Pacific Oceans. To 85 cm maximum length, reported for Taractichthys longipinnis. Pelvic fins present in all but 2 species, before pectorals, with 1 short, inconspicuous spine and 2-4 segmented rays. About 1.2 m maximum length. Some species are widely introduced. Spines in anal fin 3-5, usually 3, and 14-23 soft rays. Feed on small crustaceans and fishes. Distribution: cold-temperate north Pacific and northwest Atlantic. Cichlids are recognized by several unambiguous anatomical synapomorphies. Primarily Indo-west Pacific. Scales ctenoid or cycloid. 27959). 58418. Ventral margins of the opercles overlapping below the isthmus, fimbriae on the ventral margins of the interopercles; presence of bony fimbriae extending from the ventral margin of the interopercle and posterodorsal margin of the opercle; lateral line strongly arched anteriad and approaching the dorsal midline (Ref. With 45-47 vertebrae. Distribution: North Pacific. - a genus change for the other Datnioididae species that have been assigned to Coius but are not Anabantidae. Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. Typically elongate with long dorsal and anal fins; eyes often positioned high on the head and usually with supraorbital cirri; cirri also often present near the nape, usually on the anterior nostril, variously on the posterior nostril, and near one or more of the preoperculomandibular sensory canal pores; with a spinous process on the sphenotic; the insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit; the distal portion of the median-fin spines unossified in some; coracoid reduced and fused to the cleithrum; interopercle reduced in size, often not extending past the posterior end of the posterior ceratohyal; incisoriform teeth; the urohyal with 2 lateral projections on each side and strong ligamentous attachments to the respective hypohyals; adult males often with fleshy rugosities on the anal-fin spines; the lateral line on the body mostly reduced or even absent (Ref. 94100). A few mouthbrooding species practice exclusive maternal brood care, with a minimum delay between egg-laying and oral incubation (Gymnogeophagus balzanii, NE Colombian Geophagus species). 94100). Only one marine species (rarely brackish) bearing a superficial resemblance to cirrhitids. The unpaired lower pharyngeal toothplate and the opposed upper pharyngeal tooth plates are contained in a muscular sling characterizing labroid fishes. Long anal fin, with one spine and 17-20 soft rays. Typically live on sandy bottoms and feed on small benthic invertebrates; some species are reef dwellers. palatine and vomer teeth lacking or present only on A cordlike ligament stretches from ceratohyal to dentary symphasis. The southern limit of the family in South America is not well documented, but may be in the lower Río Negro in Argentina, which river marks the northern limit of Patagonia. Spines in anal fin 3-5, usually 3, and 14-23 soft rays. Maximum length about 55 cm. Vertebrae 27 (10 + 17). All have been assigned to Datnioides, now the genus type for the family. Cichlids are recognized by several unambiguous anatomical synapomorphies. A nostril on each side of head. Günther (1868, based on several shorter papers) described and illustrated a large part of the Central American cichlid fauna, followed by Regan (1906-1908). Adapt well to aquarium conditions. The presence of characteristically shaped and distributed micro-branchiospines on the gill arches (Stiassny, 1981); Oviparous. Bramidae - (Pomfrets) The cichlids are the most species-rich non-Ostariophysan fish family in freshwaters world-wide, and one of the major vertebrate families, with at least 1300 species and with estimates approaching 1900 species (Kullander, 1998). The northernmost species are Herichthys cyanoguttatus from the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas, USA, on the Atlantic coast, and ‘Cichlasoma beani’, which reaches north to the Río Yaquí on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Ten flattened spines in dorsal fin; soft rays 12. Parasphenoid absent. Classification Key for Common Freshwater Fish of New York State Questions Identify/Go To 1a. Dorsal fin with 3 or 4 short, isolated spines preceeding the long, low soft dorsal fin. Feeds on aquatic insects. The depressed head, its flattened ventral surface, combined with the broad pectoral and pelvic fins are hydrodynamically attuned to the swift-flowing currents. ), Lates (9 spp.) 3. originates on the subocular shelf; supraneural configuration 0/0/0+2/1+1/, /0+0/0+2/1+1/, or /0+0/2/1+1/; epineurals 10-15; procurrent caudal-fin rays typically 7-10; hypurals 1-2 and 3-4 typically fused in all species (except some juveniles); openings in external wall of pars jugularis 2 to 5; colour of sides with or without longitudinal stripes, the caudal fin either without markings, with a blackish blotch on tips of lobes, or with a longitudinal blackish streak in middle of each lobe (Ref. Cichlids are absent from the Río Marañón above the Pongo de Manseriche and from the Río Ucayali drainage upstream of Atalaya (the mouth of the Río Urubamba [Río Vilcanota] and Río Tombo [Río Apurimac]). Chaetobranchopsis, Chaetobranchus and Satanoperca acuticeps are plankton feeders. Anal spines usually 3, the first 2 separate from the rest; soft rays usually 15-31. In South America cichlids are recorded from virtually all river drainages, but rarely occupy elevations over 500 m ASL, and generally remain below 200 m ASL. Inhabits subtropical and temperate nearshore waters; often solitary, demersal over reef substrates (Ref. Snout fleshy and jutting beyond lower jaw. Lateral line goes down to ventral surface gradually or abruptly. Most species nocturnal, feeding on zooplankton and small benthic invertebrates. Inhabits subtropical and temperate nearshore waters; often solitary, demersal over reef substrates (Ref. Introduced into many areas outside native range. 94102). Pelagic eggs Mouth small and highly protrusible; 1 or 2 finger-like postmaxillary processes on dorsoposterior surface of premaxilla; angle of jaw oblique, about 40° to horizontal; dentition variously reduced; premaxillae, vomer, and palatines with or without teeth; caudal fin deeply forked; margin of dorsal and anal fins more or less evenly sloping; third or fourth dorsal-fin spines longest; second or third anal-fin spines longest, remaining spines and rays gradually decreasing in length (except in Dipterygonotus with dorsal fin profile not evenly sloping, last IV-V dorsal-fin spines small and nearly separate, connected only at their bases by membrane, and dorsal-fin rays much longer than these spines); branchiostegal rays 7; scales moderate to small, weakly ctenoid; lateral-line scales 45 to 88; ascending premaxillary process a separate ossification from premaxilla; ethmo-maxillary ligament absent; a separate A1’ section of the adductor mandibulae which Caesionidae - (Fusiliers) Therefore, Coius has been put in synonymy with Anabas and genus and species included in Anabantidae (Kottelat, 2000; CAS_Ref_No 25865). Epineural ribs in some trunk vertebrae fused proximally to corresponding pleural ribs. Pelvic fins broad or elongate. 27959). Most Neotropical cichlids occupy lentic habitats within rivers and streams; but there is also a number of moderately to strongly adapted rheophilic species. Some caninelike teeth in mouth. The stomach has an extendible blind pouch (Zihler, 1982) The stomach has an extendible blind pouch (Zihler, 1982) Slightly bulging eyes. = tooth Cycloid or ctenoid scales almost always present. About 16 cm maximum length; most much smaller. Associated with siphonophores, including feeding on them. Some species widely introduced. Teeth in jaws comblike, fixed or movable (canine teeth occasionally present). The check-list herein recognizes 403 valid Neotropical cichlid species out of XXX nominal taxa. Vertebrae 27 (10 + 17). Lateral line extends onto caudal peduncle, reaching posterior margin of fin (except in one species); some species with 3 rows on the tail. Caudal peduncle slender. Bramidae - (Pomfrets) Some of these taxa are certainly distinct species, but the status of highly localized subspecies from the Yucatán peninsula, which are based on one or very few specimens, remains a subject for revision. Channidae - (Snakeheads) Hypopterus (1 sp. The insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit. Dorsal fin much higher anteriorly in some species. Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. 75992). Lateral line 33-73 scales. Adults with pelvic fins. Cirrhitidae - (Hawkfishes) Distribution: coastal Australia, New Zealand, and Chile. 101194). 7463). Feeds on aquatic insects. Mouth small, terminal and protrusible with a band or rows of small brushlike teeth. Dinolestidae - (Long-finned pike) Tropical and subtropical, near shore to about a depth of 300 m. Most in coral or rocky reefs, and still some inhabit seagrass and coralline algal meadows, soft-bottom communities estuaries and lowland freshwater of warm-temperate waters (Ref. Marine, coastal and brackish water. Caudal peduncle slender. 9847). The subterminal mouth is very effective for grazing invertebrates from rock surfaces. Caristiidae - (Manefishes) Pelvic fins broad or elongate. Deeply forked caudal fin. Head rough, often with spines. Teeth present on vomer and palatine. Dorsal fin usually with 7-25 spines and 5-30 soft rays. Although about 90% of freshwater eels consumed in the US are farm-raised, they are not bred in captivity. vomer head (Neocaristius); lateral line is not seen; Gill rakers very short, less than 15 in number. Cichlid diversity has been explained both by their advanced brood care and by the versatile design of the pharyngeal jaw complex used for food mastication. Spines in dorsal fin 14-23; soft rays 16-21. Practically all genera and more than half of the species have been kept in aquaria at some time. There are four permanent cichlid species occurring on the island of Trinidad, but no cichlids are found on any other islands close to the Venezuelan coast. Caristiinae (Caristius, Platyberyx): large mouth with maxillary bone reaching vertical through posterior margin of orbit; narrow infraorbital region (width 2-4% SL); upper jaw completely free of suborbitalia; well-pronounced palatine and vomer teeth; well developed lateral line, presence of distinct tubular scales or poorly pronounced (traces); 36-49 vertebrae, without urostyle; flexible and elastic fin rays (Ref. Such rivers are unstable, their beds shift during floods. Cichla species are known locally as pavón (Venezuela, Colombia) or tucunaré (Brazil, Peru), the latter name expressed as lukanani (Guyana), toekoenali (Surinam), toukounaré (French Guiana) or similar names in the Guianas. Most dwell in abandoned invertebrate tubes and feed on small crustaceans. Species usually small and very colorful; inhabits rocks and corals. Premaxilla and maxilla elongate and slender, firmly fused distally. Nostrils tubular, one pair (posterior absent). Body shape quite variable, mostly moderately deep and compressed. Pelvic fin jugular, with 1 spine and 3 soft rays. Carangidae - (Jacks and pompanos) Hide in holes at night (Ref. Cirrhitidae - (Hawkfishes) One pair of nostrils. Fixed conical teeth on jaws, prevomer, and parasphenoid. Named Bovichthyidae in Nelson (1994). Colorful. Breeding activities highly organized. Marine (often brackish); some in freshwater. Eggs are demersal and adhesive (Ref. 7463); especially diverse in South African and southern Australian waters (Ref. Typically elongate with long dorsal and anal fins; eyes often positioned high on the head and usually with supraorbital cirri; cirri also often present near the nape, usually on the anterior nostril, variously on the posterior nostril, and near one or more of the preoperculomandibular sensory canal pores; with a spinous process on the sphenotic; the insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit; the distal portion of the median-fin spines unossified in some; coracoid reduced and fused to the cleithrum; interopercle reduced in size, often not extending past the posterior end of the posterior ceratohyal; incisoriform teeth; the urohyal with 2 lateral projections on each side and strong ligamentous attachments to the respective hypohyals; adult males often with fleshy rugosities on the anal-fin spines; the lateral line on the body mostly reduced or even absent (Ref. = bristle, odont- (gr.) Pectoral skeleton with 3 radials. Morphology: Pelvic fins fused into an adhesive disc, when well developed. Distribution: southern Australia. Some root in sand for invertebrates and fishes. With 35-40 vertebrae. 5. Anal fin soft rays 6-8. The unpaired lower pharyngeal toothplate and the opposed upper pharyngeal tooth plates are contained in a muscular sling characterizing labroid fishes. Nasal bones paired. The anal fin with 1 spine and 15 soft rays. Colored olive brown to dull red, bluish black or purplish with vivid green, blue, yellow, red, orange and white bars and spots or other markings, varying somewhat by population or between the sexes. Scales ctenoid or cycloid. Oviparous with pelagic eggs (Ref. Marine; in deep waters. Scales ctenoid or cycloid. Although they are active swimmers, they often pause to pick zooplankton and at cleaning stations, and shelter within the reef at night. Opercular bone very much splintered or fimbriated. Vertebrae 26-28. The fish has a heavy body and broad head that is flattened on the ventral surface. Two separate dorsal fins, first short with 7-8 flexible spines, second long with 18 to 29 segmented rays; anal fin long with 1 spine, 17-29 segmented rays; 33-48 vertebrae (Ref. Crenicichla species are known as jacundá in Brazil, añashúa in Peru, angoumot (French Guiana), mataguaro (Colombia, Venezuela), datra fisi (Surinam), cabeza amarga (Argentina and Uruguay). Short paired hypapophyses on the third and/or fourth vertebral centra (Kullander, 1998). Vertebrae 27 (10 + 17). Some Synchiropus species are popular in the aquarium trade but are difficult to maintain as they feed only on small invertebrates. Body scales cycloid. Branchiostegal rays 6. Atlantic (tropical to temperate), Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Three short spines in anal fin; soft rays 13-16. Lateral line extends onto caudal peduncle, reaching posterior margin of fin (except in one species); some species with 3 rows on the tail. Subfamilies: Vertebrae 22-31. Adults with pelvic fins. Benthic, making extensive systems of tunnels with numerous exits by burrowing in soft substrates. 119093). Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. Mesopelagic. Body elongate. Snout projecting forward and depressed. 7463). Sexes differ in color and the female is smaller than the male and assumes all or most of the care for the eggs and young. One of the most important families of tropical marine fishes; fished commercially and for recreation. Gill membranes united to isthmus. Typically elongate with long dorsal and anal fins; eyes often positioned high on the head and usually with supraorbital cirri; cirri also often present near the nape, usually on the anterior nostril, variously on the posterior nostril, and near one or more of the preoperculomandibular sensory canal pores; with a spinous process on the sphenotic; the insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit; the distal portion of the median-fin spines unossified in some; coracoid reduced and fused to the cleithrum; interopercle reduced in size, often not extending past the posterior end of the posterior ceratohyal; incisoriform teeth; the urohyal with 2 lateral projections on each side and strong ligamentous attachments to the respective hypohyals; adult males often with fleshy rugosities on the anal-fin spines; the lateral line on the body mostly reduced or even absent (Ref. Three spines in anal fin; soft rays 7-19. Eight faint longitudinal dark bands. Subocular shelf absent. Highly compressed body. Dinolestidae - (Long-finned pike) Number of species: 26 (Ref. Dorsal fin with 43-49 branched and unbranched rays and anal fin with 31-36 rays, these counts including 1-6 weak, flexible spines at front of dorsal fin and 1 or 2 in anal fin. Family Cheimarrhichthyidae is a monotypic family consisting of Cheimarrichthys fosteri which is found in fast-flowing rivers thoughout coastal New Zealand. A nostril on each side of head. There is a midlateral row of scales with pits and/or grooves. Maximum total length is about 16 cm, most specimens are about 10 - 12.5 cm. Also misspelled Centrogeniidae (Ref. Much of Pellegrin’s efforts with the Neotropical taxa were improved upon by Regan’s series of generic revisions in the next two years (Regan, 1905-1906), which remained the platform for all Neotropical cichlid systematics until the 1980s. Maximum length 20 cm; most species below 10 cm. The northernmost species are Herichthys cyanoguttatus from the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas, USA, on the Atlantic coast, and ‘Cichlasoma beani’, which reaches north to the Río Yaquí on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Elongate body; lower jaw protruding. Some species are widely introduced. Snout fleshy and jutting beyond lower jaw. 9. Slightly bulging eyes. About 1.2 m maximum length. Many feed on a combination of coelenterate polyps or tentacles, small invertebrates, fish eggs, and filamentous algae while others are specialists or planktivores. Sensory pores on top of head and cheeks usually distinct. Airbreathing through suprabranchial organ. Only one marine species (rarely brackish) bearing a superficial resemblance to cirrhitids. Deep and strongly compressed body. Parental care in 3 forms: mouthbrooding, substratebrooding, and substratebrooding of eggs then mouthbrooding of young. Postcleithrum 1. Distribution: North and South America, tropical. The anal fin with 1 spine and 15 soft rays. The species may reach an elevation of 700 meters and penetrate 300 kilometers inland from the coast. Branchiostegal rays 7. Distribution: North and South America, tropical. Geographical ranges are commonly limited to a single river or even one or a few streams, reflecting both ecological constraints and drainage basin histories. Found in warm and temperate seas from the very shallow waters to depths of at least 900 m; found on sandy or muddy substrates, among weeds and in coral reefs from tide pools and the surf zone (Ref. Mostly nest builders. Oceanic. Pelvic fins lacking in Parona signata. 95096). Some species widely introduced. Subocular shelf absent. Vomerine teeth present; palatine teeth present in all except Cryptacanthodes aleutensis. Another source of frustration concerns the generic assignment of Central American taxa, and a few South American taxa, which were excluded from the catch-all genus Cichlasoma by Kullander (1983). Important food fishes. Nasal bones paired. Breeding activities highly organized. The following information (Ref. The cichlids are the most species-rich non-Ostariophysan fish family in freshwaters world-wide, and one of the major vertebrate families, with at least 1300 species and with estimates approaching 1900 species (Kullander, 1998). Also misspelled Centrogeniidae (Ref. Maximum length about 55 cm. Elongate body; lower jaw protruding. Interrupted lateral line in most species. Bussing (1998: 293-384) summarizes data on 24 Costa Rican cichlid species; Keith et al. Lower jaw jutted. Swim bladder absent. Distribution: tropical western and eastern Atlantic, Indian and Pacific (mainly Indo-Pacific). 94100). 37107, Ref. Most with bright coloration, a dark band across the eye and an 'eyespot' dorsally. Vertebrae 24 (11+13). Frequently burrow in sand. ), Lates (9 spp.) Maximum length about 55 cm. Pelvic fins absent, pelvic girdle present. Hypopterus (1 sp. Many species variable in color, often matching their background. Large juveniles and adults with 2 dorsal fins. Morphology: Continuous dorsal fin with 0-4 spines (often 3). Chaet- (gr.) Vomerine teeth present. Mainly temperate in both southern and northern hemispheres (Ref. Body generally compressed, although body shape extremely variable from very deep to fusiform. Pumps water with a branchiostegal instead of an opercular pump (Ref. A cordlike ligament stretches from ceratohyal to dentary symphasis. Some caninelike teeth in mouth. Distribution: marine habitats in southern Australia, New Zealand, and southern South America. Caudal rays 15, branched. Species usually small and very colorful; inhabits rocks and corals. Anal fin rays 14-36. Vertebrae 24-27 (modally 24). Lateral line present. Pelvic fins broad or elongate. Erythrocytes lacking in most or all species and is thought to be probably compensated for by the cold, well-oxygenated habitat, a large volume of blood circulation and skin respiration. Pectoral fin rays 12-15. - a change of the family name in Datnioididae (= former Datnioidae); Channidae - (Snakeheads) Scales in lateral lines may be over 100, usually 20-50. 7463). Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. Centropomidae - (Snooks) 7463). 2. Moderately elongate and compressed fishes with small mouths and thick lips. A few species largely scaleless, except for lateral line scales which is always present. Small gill opening on upper side of head. About 16 cm maximum length; most much smaller. 94100). Vertebrae 24 (11+13). The family Cichlidae was first monographed by Heckel (1840), based on the Natterer collection from Brazil (illustrations in Riedl-Dorn, 2000). - a change of the family name in Datnioididae (= former Datnioidae); Dorsal and anal fins with scales. Body color usually red or pink. Higher level names include bujurqui (Peru, most cichlids), acará (Brazil, most cichlids), mochoroca (Venezuela), mojarra (Ecuador, Colombia, throughout Central America), krobia (Surinam), prapra (French Guiana). - a genus change for the other Datnioididae species that have been assigned to Coius but are not Anabantidae. Dorsal fin bipartite (either deeply notched or with a distinct gap); with 7 or 8 spines on the first part; 1 spine and 8-11 soft rays on the second. The lateral line is usually divided into one anterior upper portion ending below the end of the dorsal-fin base, and a posterior lower portion running along the middle of the caudal peduncle. Lateral line present. Snout fleshy and jutting beyond lower jaw. Maximum total length is about 16 cm, most specimens are about 10 - 12.5 cm. Benthic, making extensive systems of tunnels with numerous exits by burrowing in soft substrates. Pelvic fin jugular, with 1 spine and 3 soft rays. Anal fin soft rays 6-8. Live specimens with exceedingly beautiful colors. Eight faint longitudinal dark bands. Centrolophidae - (Medusafishes) Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. Dorsal fin with 3 or 4 short, isolated spines preceeding the long, low soft dorsal fin. Lower jaw fringed with a row of cirri. Dorsal fin continuous, with 6-16 spines and 15-30 soft rays. The stomach has an extendible blind pouch (Zihler, 1982) Bramidae - (Pomfrets) Lateral line extending onto caudal fin. Epineural ribs in some trunk vertebrae fused proximally to corresponding pleural ribs. Marine, coastal. 58418. About 16 cm maximum length; most much smaller. The insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit. Maximum length 30 cm. Dorsal fin extending over length of body in some; anterior dorsal fin spines unbranched; anal spines lost; 36-54 vertebrae. Operculum and suboperculum without spines. Scales extend onto anal and dorsal fins. First dorsal fin with 6-8 spines; 8-14 soft rays in the second. Dorsal and anal fins long, extending to caudal fin base or confluent with caudal fin; dorsal fin with 60-80 stiff spines, anal fin with 0-3 spines and 43-52 soft rays. Much of this habitat is difficult to reach that torrentfish are not easily observed and relatively little is known about them. Lower jaw projecting; mouth large, oblique to nearly vertical. Usually with fringes on lips. Badidae - (Chameleonfishes) 94102). There is considerable variation in the shape and of the toothplates and associated dentition, reflecting diet specializations. Family needs more work. Adults with pelvic fins. Gill membranes united to isthmus. Adults with pelvic fins. Mouth small, terminal and protrusible with a band or rows of small brushlike teeth. Lateral line uninterrupted and complete. Pelagic spawners. Benthic, making extensive systems of tunnels with numerous exits by burrowing in soft substrates. Flat nasal organ devoid of lamellae; lateral line running along base of dorsal fin. Body compressed; usually elongated to anguilliform in Chaenopsis. Morphology: Body oblong to fusiform; D X-XV,8-22 with slender weak spines; A III,9-13; pelvic fins I,5; pectoral fins 16-24; caudal fin distinctly forked with pointed lobes; scale rows on body running horizontally; dorsal and anal fins with scales except for Gymnocaesio Highly compressed body. Scales absent, except small cycloid scales present in Cryptacanthodes giganteus. Pelvic axis usually with scaly process. Some of the planktivores and generalists do well in the aquarium, but most species are difficult to maintain, and obligate corallivores nearly impossible. Also Ref. The loss of a major structural association between parts A2 and Aw of the adductor mandibulae muscle and the musculous insertion of a large ventral section of A2 onto the posterior border of the ascending process of the anguloarticular (Stiassny, 1981); Pelagic eggs Associated with siphonophores, including feeding on them. Eggs are typically deposited on a substrate and both parents guard offspring over several weeks, even for some time after the young are free-swimming. Opercular bone very much splintered or fimbriated. One or two trunk lateral lines of superficial neuromasts, difficult to discern in preserved material. There is considerable variation in the shape and of the toothplates and associated dentition, reflecting diet specializations. Important food fishes. Body elongate, rounded anteriorly and compressed posteriorly; head broad, depressed, with eyes set high. Dorsal fin usually with 7-25 spines and 5-30 soft rays. Maximum length about 15 cm. Günther (1868, based on several shorter papers) described and illustrated a large part of the Central American cichlid fauna, followed by Regan (1906-1908). A formal classification down to tribe is provided by Kullander (1988). Distribution: Eastern Atlantic (off Europe and Mediterranean) and Indo-West Pacific (including New Zealand). On the Pacific slope, cichlids are found in a succession of permanent rivers south to the Río Jequetepeque or perhaps even to slightly south of Lima, Peru.

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